Principles Of Computer Security

Principles Of Computer Security

Although experts agree that no system is 100% secure and foolproof, for the good of your business, information should be protected as much as possible. To do this, we must apply the three principles of computer security: integrity, confidentiality, and availability. Do you dare to meet them?

What is data security?

Data security means defending digital information from unauthorized access, corruption, or theft. This entails the implementation of computer security tools, which lead to:

  •  Increase company visibility into where its critical data resides and how it is used.
  • Recognize the relevance of data sets  (you have to know what they are and their sensitivity to protect them).
  • Carry out the ten computer security measures.

The latter are described in the previous article on our blog.

Computer security objectives 

Among the main cybersecurity goals, we highlight the following:

  • Reduce and manage risks.
  • Detect problems and threats to computer security.
  • Guarantee appropriate use of system resources and applications.
  • Minimize data loss and recover it.

Of course, we would also include respect for the legal framework and client requirements.

Information security complexity

Computer security management involves various techniques, processes, and practices that must be combined to keep data safe and inaccessible to unauthorized third parties. The focus is protecting confidential information, such as personal data or business-critical intellectual property.

However, some data are more complicated to defend than others. The reason is that information comes from many sources: smartphones, emails, cloud applications, and servers.

This greater diversity equates to greater difficulty in guaranteeing protection. This greater heterogeneity means that security plans must be more complete. And finally, this greater number of users forces us to be more careful with the authorization system.

Consequences of lack of computer security 

Without computer maintenance, your company may suffer sensitive data leaks, financial losses, service interruptions, damage to its image, decreases in orders, loss of business opportunities, compensation for damages to third parties, etc.

The three principles of computer security

As we mentioned, the three principles of computer security are none other than the integrity, confidentiality, and availability of information:

Confidentiality of information

Also called privacy, it means that the information is only available to those who:

  • They need to know her.
  • They have been authorized to do so.

This principle guarantees that data will not be spread accidentally or deliberately. And we all have the right to protect our personal information.

Confidentiality means that information is not disclosed online without your consent.

The breach also affects differently depending on whether it is equipment or network:

  • Work computer: when an attacker manages to access a computer without permission, controlling its resources.
  • Communications network: when an attack has access to the messages circulating through it without authorization.

Cryptography is a practice that “disguises” information using algorithms, making it illegible.

Information integrity

It means that the information (stored or sent) has not been manipulated by third parties with malicious intent. This ensures that unauthorized users modify the information.

Integrity is summarized in that the data is kept correct without being altered by third parties.

Integrity violation has different meanings depending on whether it is on a computer or a network:

  • Work Team – When a non-legitimate user changes information.
  • Communication network: when an attacker acts as an intermediary in a communication.

Information Availability

It means that the data must always be available to authorized individuals. This translates into permanent access and the possibility of recovery in the event of an incident. For example, online backup is very useful to supplement these computer security principles.

Authenticity and non-repudiation: other principles of information security?

Some include authenticity within the principles of computer security. This guarantees the veracity of the authorship of the data. However, more is needed to ensure the veracity of the content of the information.

It allows us to review the identity of the participants in a communication and ensure that they are who they say they are.

On the other hand, many demand the concept of non-repudiation, which is based on verifying the participation of both parties in a communication. It can be of origin (protects the shipment’s recipient) or destination (defends the sender of the shipment).

Non-repudiation would be part of authenticity. It represents that the author of the data has no way of denying that he is one.

Data security in the company: who is responsible

The company’s management is where those responsible for protecting information are located. And your vision determines the way you approach the principles of computer security. Not on a day-to-day basis, the responsibility falls on:

  • The CSO designs the strategy to follow in terms of cybersecurity.
  • Management at the departmental level.
  • Employees are responsible for following recommended practices and taking extreme precautions regarding password management.

How can we increase computer security? How to protect yourself?

Computer security principles can be met by carrying out various practices. Although these are very diverse, they can be classified into these 4:

  • Least privileges policy. Not all individuals in a company should have access to all of its information. Managing privileges means implementing hierarchies about who can access each level of data, from lowest to highest confidentiality. This prevents information leaks and reduces the risk of someone abusing her position to misuse her privileges. 
  • Access control policy closed by default. All access to the data and the systems that process or store it would have to be closed to all users, being allowed exclusively to those authorized to do so.
  • Segregation of functions. Dividing the roles and responsibilities of each member within the company’s organizational chart avoids conflicts of interest. It reduces security risks when a user accumulates too many data access privileges in the company. 
  • Defense in depth. It is advisable to design and apply different levels of security in the company, given the large number of attacks and dangers coming from dependence on ICT, which reach a very large surface. 

Lastly, although no less important, investing in computer security training for all workers is recommended. Almost all cyberattacks succeed because they exploit human (non-deliberate) error. The need to carry out cybersecurity practices on a daily basis must be conveyed to the staff. In order to protect the confidentiality of the information and, therefore, the company’s continuity. Something beneficial for everyone.


Now you know what the three principles of computer security in companies are. We have explained data availability, confidentiality, and integrity so that you can determine what cybersecurity strategies can be carried out. Likewise, we have seen what other features are interesting from the point of view of information security. That is, we have reviewed what authenticity and non-repudiation of content are. In addition, we have pointed out the negative consequences of not complying with these pillars of cybersecurity.

Also Read : Machine Learning technology Uses Tweets To Predict High-Risk Security Vulnerabilities


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